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Chapter : 01 : Resources and Development


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Resource: Anything which can be used for satisfying the human needs is called a resource.

Types of Resources:

Resources can be classified on different bases; into following types:

  1. On the basis of origin:

  • Biotic Resources: All living organisms in our environment ;

  • Abiotic Resources: All non-living things present in our environment

  1. On the basis of exhaustibility:

  • Renewable - Resources that can be replenished after a short period of time

  • Non-renewable - Resources which takes million years of time to replenish

  1. On the basis of ownership:

  • Individual - owned by individuals

  • Community - owned by community or society

  • national - owned by Individual Nations

  • international - Resources regulate by International bodies

  1. On the basis of status of development:

  • Potential Resources - found in a particular region, but not yet used properly.

  • Developed Resources: Resources which are developed and surveyed for utilization and are being used in present time.

  • Stock: Resources that are available, but we do not have proper technology to used them.

  • Reserves: Resources which are available and the knowhow to use them is also present but they are yet to be used.


  • Resources are vital for human beings. But indiscriminate use of resources is creating many problems.

  • Thus, equal distribution of resources becomes necessary for sustainable development.

  • Sustainable Development: Development which takes place without damaging the environment and compromising with needs of future is called sustainable development.

  • Keeping the view of justified use of resources and sustainable development, the Earth Summit was organized in 1992 in Rio de Janeiro + agreed with Agenda 21 for the sustainable development and proper use of resources.

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Resource Planning:

  • Resource planning - judicious use of resources + becomes more important in a country like India, where resources are not distributed properly.

Resource Planning in India:




Conservation of Resources:

  • Overuse of resources creates many socio-economic problems. Many leaders and thinkers have been advocating for the judicious use and conservation of resources.

  • Gandhiji told “There is enough for everybody’s need and not for any body’s greed.” He thought that exploitative nature of modern technology is the root cause for depletion at global level. He believed in the production by masses and not in the mass production.

  • Thus, conservation of resources at various levels becomes most important. Resources can be conserved only with their judicious use.


Land Resources: Land is one of the most important natural resources. Land supports our life system.

  • Plain: About 43% of land area in India is in the form of plains. Plains provide facilities for agriculture, building of industries and houses, etc.

  • Mountains: About 30% of land area in India is in the form of mountain. Mountain supports the perennial flow of rivers, which carry fertile soils, facilitate irrigation and provide drinking water.

  • Plateau: About 27% of land in India is in the form of plateau which provides many types of minerals, fossil fuels and forest.


  1. Forests

  2. Land not available for cultivation: There are two types of land which are not used for agriculture purpose. These are:

  • Barren and waste land

  • Lands used for buildings, roads, factories, etc. i.e for non-agriculture purpose.

  1. Other uncultivated land (excluding fallow land)

  • Permanent pastures and grazing land

  • Land under miscellaneous tree crops groves (not included in net sown area),

  • Culturable waste land (left uncultivated for more than 5 agricultural years).

  1. Fallow lands

  • Current fallow-(left without cultivation for one or less than one agricultural year),

  • Other than current fallow-(left uncultivated for the past 1 to 5 agricultural years).

  1. Net sown area: Area which is sown at least once in a year is called net sown area.

Gross cropped area: Area sown more than once in an agricultural year plus net sown area is known as gross cropped area.

Soil as a natural resource: Soil is one of the most important natural resources. Soil supports the growth of plants. Soil is the natural home of many living organism, such as ants, rats, snakes, and many insects.

Soil is formed by the weathering process of the rocks.

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Classification of Soil: Soil is categorized in many types on the basis of texture, colour, age, chemical properties, etc.

Alluvial Soil

FOUND WHERE> Found near the river or plains formed by rivers.

  • North eastern plain where Ganga, Yamuna, and Brahmaputra flow.

  • Eastern coastal plains near the Mahanadi, the Krishna, the Godavari and the Kaveri rivers.

HOW IS IT> Alluvial soil is the mixture of various proportions of silt, sand and clay.

CLASSIFICATION : The older alluvial soil is known as Bangar and new alluvial soil or Khadar.

FOR WHAT > Alluvial soil is rich in potash, phosphoric acid and lime.Because of presence of these chemicals alluvial soil is good for the growth of sugarcane, paddy, wheat, maize, and pulses.

Black Soil

NAME : Because of black colour, this type of soil is called black soil / Regur Soil

FOUND WHERE> North west deccan plateau. It is found in the plateau of Maharashtra, Saurashtra, Malwa, Madhya Pradesh and Chattisgarh and extent along with the valley of Krishna and Godavari Rivers.

HOW IS IT > Black soil has high concentration of fine particles and thus can hold moisture for long time. It contains calcium, potassium, magnesium and lime. Black soil is suitable for the growth of cotton, but many other crop are grown in the area of black soil.




Red and Yellow Soil : The soil looks red due to presence of iron in crystalline or metamorphic rocks. When the soil look yellow when it occurs in dehydrated form.

FOUND WHERE > Red soil is present in the eastern and southern parts of the Deccan Plateau. = Orissa, Chhattisgarh, on the southern part of the Gangetic plains and along the piedomont zone of the Western Ghats.

Laterite Soil : Laterite soil is formed in regions which get high rainfall with high temperature. This causes leaching of the soil and microorganisms are killed during the process. Due to this, laterite soil does not contain humus or contains very low amount of humus.

FOUND WHERE > Kerala, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Madhya Pradesh and in hilly areas of Orissa and Assam.

Arid Soil : Arid soil is found in those areas which receive scanty rainfall. Due to high temperature, evaporation is faster in these regions. The soil has a high content of salt. Arid soil can be made cultivable with proper treatment. Arid soil is present in Rajasthan and Gujarat.

Forest Soil : The forest soil is found in hilly areas. The soil in upper parts is highly acidic because of denudation. The soil in the lower part is highly fertile.

Soil Erosion and Soil Conservation

  • Removal of top soil is called soil erosion. Intense farming, grazing, construction activities and other human activities; along with deforestation have led to soil erosion. Soil erosion; if not checked in time; can even lead to desertification.

  • Soil conservation is important to prevent soil erosion. Soil conservation can be done by many methods. Afforestation is the main method because trees hold the topsoil in place. Terrace farming and shelter belt planting also help in soil conservation.


Chapter 2 :Forest and Wildlife Resources


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Biodiversity: The variety of flora and fauna in a given geographical area is called biodiversity of that area.

Flora and Fauna in India : India is one of the world’s richest countries in terms of its vast array of biological diversity, and has nearly 8 per cent of the total number of species in the world (estimated to be 1.6 million).

  • Fauna = More than 81,000 species ; Endangered mammals = About 20%

  • Flora = More than 47,000 species ; Endangered wild flora = About 10%

  • Indigenous flowering plants About 15,000 species

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List of Critically Endangered Species:

Cheetah, pink-headed Duck, Mountain Quail, Forest Spotted Owl, madhucha insignis (wild mahua), hubbardia heptaneuron (a grass species)

Number of Endangered Species: 79 species of mammals, 44 of birds, 15 of reptiles, and 3 of amphibians, 1,500 plant species are considered endangered.

Classification Based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN):

  • Normal Species: If the population level of species is within normal range for their survival, it is called normal species, e.g. cattle, pine, sal, rodents, etc.

  • Endangered Species: Species which are in danger of extinction are called endangered species, e.g. black buck, crocodile, Indian wild ass, Indian rhino, lion tailed macaque, sangai (brow anter deer in Manipur), etc.

  • Vulnerable Species: If the population of a species has declined to such a level that it is likely to become endangered; it is called vulnerable species, e.g. blue sheep, Asiatic elephant, Gangetic dolphin, etc.

  • Rare Species: If the population of a species so small that it can become vulnerable or endangered, it is called rare species, e.g. Himalayan brown bear, wild Asiatic buffalo, desert, fox, hornbill, etc.

  • Endemic Species: A species which found only in a particular geographical area is called an endemic species, e.g. Andaman teal, Nicobar pigeon, Andaman wild pig, mithun in Arunachal Pradesh, etc.

  • Extinct Species: A species which no longer exists is called an extinct species. A species may be extinct from a local area, region, country, continent or the entire earth. Examples: Asiatic cheetah, pink head duck, etc.

Vanishing Forests

  • Forest cover - 637,293 sq km (19.39% of total geographic area)

  • Dense forest- 11.48%

  • Open forest- 7.76%

  • Mangrove - 0.15%

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Factors responsible for Depletion of Flora and Fauna:

  • According to the Forest Survey of India, over 262,000 sq km of forest area was converted into agricultural land in India between 1951 and 1980.

  • Moreover, a substantial part of the tribal belts has been deforested or degraded by shifting cultivation.

  • Enrichment Plantation: Enrichment plantation was done to promote a few favoured species in many parts of India i.e., it involves plantation of a single commercially valuable species. This leads to elimination of other species.

  • Development Projects: Large scale development projects have also contributed significantly to the loss of forests.

  • Mining

  • Unequal Access to Resources:. The rich people consume much more than the poor and thus cause a higher degree of environmental damage.

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In the 1960s and 1970s, the conservationists demanded some rules to protect the wildlife. Conceding to their demand, the government enacted the Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act 1972.

  • Under this act, an all India list of protected species was published.

  • Hunting was banned to protect the remaining population of some endangered species.

  • Trade in wildlife was restricted and

  • the habitats of wildlife were given legal protection many national parks and wildlife sanctuaries were established by various state governments and the central government.

  • Several projects were announced for protecting specific animals, e.g. Project Tiger.


  • Conservation helps in preserving ecological diversity and our life support systems; water, air and soil.

  • It preserves the genetic diversity of plants and animals.

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Categorization of Forests:

  • Reserved Forests: More than half of the total forest land has been declared reserved forests. These are considered as the most valuable from conservation perspective.

  • Protected Forests: Almost one-third of the total forest area is protected forest. The protected forests are protected from any further depletion.

  • Unclassed Forests: Forests which do not come under either of the above two categories are called unclassed forests. LOVE THESE NOTES FOR YOUR PRELIMS 2017? GET THE NOTES FOR THE ALL THE SUBJECTS BY JOINING 50 DAYS PLAN TO PRELIMS.




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Types of Farming in India :

Primitive Subsistence Farming: This type of farming is practiced on small patches of land. Primitive tools and family/community labour are used in this type of farming. The farming mainly depends on monsoon and natural fertility of soil. Crops are grown as per the suitability of the environmental condition.

This is also called ‘slash and burn’ agriculture. A patch of land is cleared by slashing the vegetation and then the slashed plants are burnt. The ash; thus obtained is mixed with the soil and crops are grown.

This type of farming produces just enough crops to sustain the family. After a couple of seasons, the patch is left fallow and a new patch of land is prepared for farming. This allows the earlier patch of land to replenish its fertility through the natural process.

Slash and Burn Farming in India and World – REFER.

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Intensive Subsistence Farming: : This type of farming is practiced in densely populated areas. This involves high degree of use of biochemical inputs and irrigation. There is huge pressure of population on this type of farming.

Problems of Intensive Farming: Division of land through successive generation leads to plot size getting smaller and smaller. This makes it impossible to properly manage the farm inputs. Moreover, large-scale farming is not possible in that case.

Commercial Farming: This type of farming is done with the sole purpose of selling the farm produce. Various modern inputs are used in this type of farming, e.g. HYV(High Yielding Variety) seeds, chemical fertilisers, insecticides and pesticides. Punjab, Haryana, Western UP and some parts of Maharashtra are the areas where commercial farming is done on large scale. However, this type of farming is also done in many other states; like Bihar, West Bengal, Tamil Nadu, etc.

Plantation: In this type of farming, a single crop is grown on a large area. Plantation requires intensive capital and a large number of workers. Most of the produce from a plantation is used in various industries. tea, coffee, rubber, sugarcane, banana, etc. are important plantation crops.

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CROPPING PATTERN : India has three cropping seasons — rabi, kharif and zaid.

Rabi: Rabi crops are also known as winter crops. They are sown from October to December and harvested from April to June.

  • Wheat, barley, pea, gram and mustard are the important rabi crops.

  • Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Uttarakhan and Uttar Pradesh are the important producers of rabi crops.

Kharif: Kharif crops are also known as summer crops. They are sown at the beginning of monosoon and harvested in September-October.

  • Paddy, maize, jowar, bajra, tur, moong, urad, cotton, jute, groundnut and soyabean are important kharif crops.

  • Assam, West Bengal, coastal regions of Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar are important rice growing states.

  • In Assam, West Bengal and Orissa; three crops of paddy are grown in a year. These are called Aus, Aman and Boro.

Zaid: The zaid season falls in between the rabi and kharif seasons.

  • Watermelon, muskmelon, cucumber, vegetables and fodder crops are some of the crops grown in this season.

  • Sugarcane is planted in this season but takes almost a year to grow.

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Rice: India is the second largest producer of rice; after China.

  • It requires high temperature (above 25°C), high humidity and annual rainfall above 100 cm.

  • However, it can be grown with the help of suitable irrigation in areas of less rainfall. Rice is grown in the northern plains, northeast India, coastal areas and deltaic regions.

  • Now-a-days, rice is also grown in Punjab, Haryana, western Uttar Pradesh and in parts of Rajasthan. This has been possible because of development of a dense network of canals.

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Wheat: Wheat is the main food crop in north and north-western parts of India.

  • Wheat needs 50 to 75 cm of annual rainfall which should be evenly distributed over the growing season. The Ganga-Sutlej plains in the northwest and black soil region of Deccan are the two important wheat-growing zones in India.

  • Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Rajasthan and parts of Madhya Pradesh are the important wheat producing regions.

Millets: Millets are known as coarse grains, but they have very high nutritional value. Jowar, bajra and ragi are the important millets grown in India.

  • JOWAR : Maharashtra is the largest producer of jowar; followed by Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh. Jowar grows in moist areas and hardly needs irrigation.

  • BAJRA : Bajra grows well on sandy soil and shallow black soil. Rajasthan is the largest producer of bajra; followed by Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Gujarat and Haryana.

  • RAGI : Ragi grows in dry regions on red, black, sandy loamy and shallow black soils. Karnataka is the largest producer of ragi; follower by Tamil Nadu.

Maize: Maize is used both as food and fodder. It grows well in old alluvial soil and requires a temperature range of 21°-27°C. Karnataka, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Andhra Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh are the major maize-producing states.

Pulses: India is the largest producer of pulses in the world. It is also the largest consumer of pulses. Pulses are usually produced in rotation with other crops. UP, MP, Rajasthan and Karnataka are the major pulse-producing states.


  • Sugarcane: Sugarcane needs hot and humid climate. It requires temperature range of 21°-27°C and rainfall of 75 cm to 100 cm. India is the second largest producer of sugarcane, while Brazil is the number one. Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Punjab and Haryana are major sugar producing states.

  • Oilseeds: India is the largest producer of oilseeds. Groundnut, mustard, coconut, sesame, soyabean, castor, cotton seeds, linseed and sunflower are the main oilseeds grown in India.

  • Groundnut: Groundnut accounts for about half of the major oilseeds produced in the country. Andhra Pradesh is the largest producer of groundnut; followed by Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Gujarat and Maharashtra. Groundnut is a kharif crop. Linseed and mustard are rabi crops. Sesame is a kharif crop in north and rabi crop in south. Castor is grown both as rabi and kharif crops.

  • Tea: Tea plants grow well in tropical and sub-tropical climates; in deep and fertile well drained soil. The soil should be rich in humus and organic matter. Tea is a labour intensive industry. Assam, West Bengal, Tamil Nadu and Kerala are major tea-producing states. The hills of Darjeeling are famous for the unique quality of tea produced there. India is the leading producer of tea in the world.

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  • Coffee: Coffee is also grown in plantations. Initially, the Arabica variety was brought from Yemen and produced in India. The cultivation of coffee was initially introduced on the Baba Budan Hills.

  • Others: India is a producer of tropical as well as temperate fruits. Mangoes of Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal, oranges of Nagpur and Cherrapunjee (Meghalaya), bananas of Kerala, Mizoram, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu, lichi and guava of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar, pineapples of Meghalaya, grapes of Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra, apples, pears, apricots and walnuts of Jammu and Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh are in great demand the world over.

  • Horticulture Crops: India is the largest producer of fruits and vegetables in the world. India produces about 13 per cent of the world’s vegetables. It is an important producer of pea, cauliflower, onion, cabbage, tomato, brinjal and potato.


  • Rubber: Rubber is a crop of equatorial region but it is also grown tropical and subtropical regions. It needs moist and humid climate with rainfall more than 200 cm. A temperature range above 25°C is required for rubber plantation. In India, rubber is mainly grown in Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Andaman & Nicobar islands and also in the Garo hills of Meghalaya. India is the fifth largest rubber producer in the world.

  • Cotton: India is the third-largest producer of cotton. Cotton grows in dry pats of black cotton soil of the Deccan plateau. High temperature, light rainfall or irrigation, 210 frost-free days and bright sunshine are required for the growth of cotton. The crop requires 6 to 8 months to mature. Maharashtra, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Punjab, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh are the main cotton producing states.

  • Jute: Jute needs well-drained fertile soils of the flood plains. West Bengal, Bihar, Assam, Orissa and Meghalaya are the major jute producing states.

Bhoodan – Gramdan & Land Reforms

Land reform was the main focus of the First Five Year Plan. Vinoba Bhave started the Bhoodan Andolan to encourage big landlords to donate a part of their land to the landless farmers. Many people came out in support of Vinoba Bhave and donated land.

Small plot size hampers proper farm management. To improve the condition, the government brought certain measures for land reform. In some states, land was redistributed so that all of the land owned by a farmer could come on a single plot. The reform was successful in some states (like Punjab and UP) but could not be implemented throughout the country, because of poor response by farmers.



  • Green Revolution: Green Revolution was started in the 1960s and 1970s to improve farm output. Use of new technology and HYV seeds was encouraged. Green revolution produced very good results; especially in Punjab and Haryana.

  • White Revolution: White Revolution (Operation Flood) was initiated to improve milk production in the country.

  • A comprehensive land development programme was launched in the 1980s and 1990s. These programmes included both institutional and technical reforms. Provision for crop insurance was made against drought, flood, cyclone, fire and disease. Gramin banks and cooperative societies were opened in rural areas so that farmers could get access to loan facilities.

  • Kissan Credit Card (KCC), Personal Accident Insurance Scheme (PAIS) and many other schemes were introduced for the benefit of farmers.

  • The government owned radio and TV channels broadcast special weather bulletins and agricultural programmes. Government also announced MSP (Minimum Support Price) so that farmers can be saved from exploitation by middlemen.

FOOD SECURITY: PAGE 44 : In order to ensure food security to all sections of society, the government has carefully designed a national food security system.

It has two components:

  • Buffer Stock: Once the government procures food grains through FCI (Food Corporation of India), buffer stock is maintained at various locations. This stock is utilised in case of food shortage at any place. This stock is also utilised in case of natural disasters; like flood and drought.

  • Public Distribution System: PDS is a programme which provides food grains and other essential commodities at subsidised prices to poor people in rural and urban areas. A person needs to get a ratio card made to avail the benefits of PDS. Separate cards are made for BPL (Below Poverty Line) and APL (Above Poverty Line) families. The PDS is also fed by the FCI.

Shifting Agricultural Pattern: More and more farmers are now shifting towards cultivation of fruits, vegetables, oilseeds and industrial crops. While this is good from a farmer’s income perspective, it is dangerous for food security in the country.

Impact of Globalisation on Agriculture: PAGE 46 :

  • Impact of globalisation are being felt since historic times.

  • When European traders first came in India, black pepper and spices were the main items of export. During British rule, India became a net exporter of raw materials; especially cotton. Due to high demand of indigo in British textiles industry, the farmers in India were forced to grow indigo. This interferred with cereal production in India

  • In the modern context, Indian farmers are unable to compete with western farmers because of very high level of subsidies for farmers in the west. Due to this, demand for Indian farm produce is very low in international market. Moreover, excessive use of synthetic fertilisers, irrigation, etc. has created its own problems; which are evident by falling level of farm production.

  • Too many people are dependent on farm land in India and hence per capita farm production is forecasted to decrease further.





Page 50 : What is a mineral ? A homogenous, naturally occurring substance with definable internal structure is called mineral.

Mode of occurrence of minerals:

  1. FOUND IN IGNEOUS + METAMORPHIC ROCKS : The smaller occurrences are called veins and the larger occurrences are called lodes. They are usually formed when minerals in liquid/molten and gaseous forms are forced upwards through cavities towards the earth’s surface. Examples: tin, copper, zinc, lead, etc.

  2. FOUNDIN SEDIMENTARY ROCKS : In these rocks, minerals occur in beds or layers. Coal, iron ore, gypsum, potash salt and sodium salt are the minerals found in sedimentary rocks.

  3. SURFACE ROCKS : Decomposition of surface rocks and removal of soluble constituents leaves a residual mass of weathered material which contains ores. Bauxite is formed in this way.

  4. IN ALLUVIAL DEPOSITS : These minerals are found in sands of valley floors and the base of hills. These deposits are called placer deposits. They generally contain those minerals which are not corroded by water. Examples; gold, silver, tin, platinum, etc.

  5. IN OCEAN WATER : Most of the minerals in ocean water are too widely diffused to be of economic importance. But common salt, magnesium and bromine are mainly derived from ocean waters.


Iron Ore : India is rich in good quality iron ores.

  • Magnetite is the finest iron ore with a very high content of iron upto 70%. This iron ore is valuable for the electrical industry because of its excellent magnetic properties.

  • Hematite ore is the most important industrial iron ore; in terms of usage. The iron content of hematite is 50-60%.

Major Iron Ore Belts in India

  • Orissa Jharkhand Belt: Badampahar mines in the Mayurbhanj and Kendujhar districts of Orissa have high grade hematite ore. Additionally, hematite iron ore is mined in Gua and Noamundi in Singhbhum district of Jharkhand.

  • Durg Bastar Chandrapur Belt: This belt lies in Chhattisgarh and Maharashtra. The Bailadila range of hills in the Bastar district of Chhattisgarh have very high grade hematite ore. This hilly range has 14 deposits of super high grade hematite ore. Iron from these mines is exported to Japan and South Korea via Vishakapatnam port.

  • Bellary Chitradurga Chikmaglur Tumkur Belt: This belt lies in Karnataka. The Kudremukh mines located in the Western Ghats are a 100 percent export unit. The ore from these mines is transported as slurry through a pipeline to a port near Mangalore.

  • Maharashtra Goa Belt: This belt inculdes the state of Goa and Ratnagiri district of Maharashtra. The ores in these mines are not of very high quality. They are exported through Marmagao port.

2. Manganese :Manganese is mainly used in the manufacturing of steel and ferro-manganese alloy. It is also used in making bleaching powder, insecticides and paints.


1. Copper : Copper is mainly used in electrical cables, electronics and chemical industries.

FOUND : The Balaghat mines in Madhya Pradesh produce 52% of India’s copper. Rajasthan is the next leading producer with about 48% share. Copper is also produced in the Singhbhum district of Jharkhand.

2. Aluminium : Aluminium is lightweight yet strong and hence is used in a variety of applications.

FOUND : Amarkantak plateau, Maikal hills and the plateau region of Bilaspur-Katni are the main areas of bauxite deposits. Orissa is the leading producer of bauxite in India with 45% share. Panchpatmali in Koraput district is the most important centre of bauxite deposit in Orissa.





Mica : Mica is a mineral which is made up of a series of plates or leaves. The mica sheets can be so thin that a thousand of them can be layered into a few centimetre thick mica sheet. Mica has excellent di-electric strength, low power loss factor, insulating properties and resistance to high voltage. Mica is widely used in electric and electronic industries.

FOUND : Mica deposits are found in the northern edge of the Chota Nagpur plateau. Koderma-Gaya-Hazaribagh belt of Jharkhand is the leading producer of mica. Ajmer in Rajasthan and Nellore in Andhra Pradesh are the other important producers of mica.

Hazards of Mining

  • Mining is a hazardous industry; both for the workers and for the residents.

  • The Miners have to work under tough conditions where no natural light is available. There is always a risk of collapse of mine roof, inundation with water and fire. The areas around mines face the problem of too much dust from the mines. Slurry from mines damages the roads and the farmland. Houses and clothes become dirty more often than in other areas.

  • Miners are at great risk of getting afflicted with pulmonary disorders. Cases of respiratory tract diseases are very high in mining areas.

Conservation of Minerals : It takes millions of years for the formation of minerals. Compared to the present rate of consumption, the replenishment rate of minerals is very slow. Hence, mineral resources are finite and non-renewable. Due to this, it is important that we conserve the mineral resources.

Energy Resources :PAGE 58 :

  1. Conventional Energy Resources: Firewood, cattle dung cake, coal, petroleum, natural gas and electricity (both hydel and thermal)

  2. Non-conventional Energy Resources: Solar, wind, tidal, geothermal, biogas and atomic energy.


COAL : India is highly dependent on coal for meeting its commercial energy requirements. Depending on the degree of compression during its formation, there are varieties of coal.

  1. Lignite: It is a low grade brown coal. It is soft and has high moisture content. Neyveli in Tamil Nadu has the main reserves of lignite coal. This type of coal is used for electricity generation.

  2. Bituminous coal: Coal which was formed because of increased temperature and was buried very deep is called bituminous coal. This is the most popular coal for commercial use. High grade bituminous coal is ideal for use in metallurgy.

  3. Anthracite coal: This is the highest quality hard coal.

In India, coal occurs in rock series of two main geological ages. The Gondwana coal was formed over 200 million years ago. The tertiary deposits are about 55 million years old. The major sources of Gondwana coal are located in the Damodar valley (West Bengal-Jharkhan). In this belt; Jharia, Raniganj and Bokaro are important coalfields. Coal deposits are also present in the Godavari, Mahanadi, Son and Wardha valleys.

Tertiary coal is found in the north-eastern states of Meghalaya, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh and Nagaland.

Petroleum : After coal, the next major energy resource in India is petroleum. -Petroleum is a major source of fuel for various uses. Petroleum also provides raw materials for various manufacturing industries; like plastic, textiles, pharmaceuticals, etc.

-Most of the petroleum in India occurs in anticlines and fault traps in the rock formations of the tertiary age. The oil bearing layer is a porous limestone or sandstone through which oil may flow. The intervening non-porous layers prevent the oil from rising or sinking. Petroleum is also found in fault traps between porous and non-porous rocks. Gas usually occurs above the oil because it is lighter than oil.

-Mumbai High produces about 63% of India’s petroleum, Gujarat produces 18% and Assam 13%. Ankeleshwar is the most important oil field in Gujarat. Assam is the oldest oil producing state of India. Important oil fields of Assam are Digboi, Naharkatiya and Moran-Hugrijan.

Natural Gas :

- Natural gas is found alongwith or without petroleum. It is used as fuel and also as industrial raw material. Large reserves of natural gas have been discovered in the Krishna-Godavari Basin. Gulf of Cambay, Mumbai High and Andaman Nicobar islands are also important areas with large reserves of natural gas.

- The 1700 km long Hazira-Vijaipur-Jagdishpur pipeline links Mumbai High and Bassein with the fertiliser, power and industrial complexes in western and northern India. Natural gas is mainly used by the fertiliser and power industries. Now-a-days, use of CNG (Compressed Natural Gas) is increasing as vehicle fuel in the country.

Electricity : Electricity is generated mainly by two methods; by running water which drives hydro turbines and by burning other fuels like coal, petroleum and natural gas to drive turbines.

  • Bhakra Nangal, Damodar Valley Corporation, Kopili Hydel Project, etc. are major hydroelectric producers in the country. At present, there are over 300 thermal power stations in India.

Non-conventional Sources of Energy :

PAGE 62 :

Nuclear Energy: Nuclear energy is obtained by altering the structure of atom. When the structure of an atom is altered, too much energy is released in the form of heat. This heat is utilised to generate electric power. Uranium and Thorium are used for generating atomic power.

These minerals are available in Jharkhand and the Aravalli ranges of Rajasthan. The Monazite sand of Kerala is also rich in Thorium.

Solar Energy: Photovoltaic technology is used to convert solar energy into electricity.

The largest solar plant of India is located at Madhapur near Bhuj. Solar energy holds great promises for the future.

It can help in minimizing the dependence on firewood and animal dung cakes in rural areas. This will also help in conservation of fossil fuels.

Wind Power: India now ranks as a “Wind Super Power” in the world.

The wind farm cluster in Tamil Nadu (from Nagarcoil to Madurai) is the largest cluster in India.

Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Gujarat, Kerala, Maharashtra and Lakshadweep are also important centres of wind power production.

Biogas: Biogas can be produced from shrubs, farm waste, and animal and human waste.

Biogas is more efficient than kerosene, dung cake and charcoal. Biogas plants can be set up at municipal, cooperative and individual levels.

The gobar gas plants provide energy and also manure.

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Tidal Energy: Floodgate dams are built across inlets. The water flows into the inlet during high tide and gets trapped when the gate is closed. Once the tide recedes, the gates are opened so that water can flow back to the sea. The flow of water is used to run the turbine to generate electricity.

A 900 mw tidal energy power plant is set up by the National Hydropower Corporation in the Gulf of Kuchchh. ​Geo Thermal Energy: We know that the inside of the earth is very hot. At some places, this heat is released on the surface through fissures. Groundwater in such areas becomes hot and rises up in the form of steam. This steam is used to drive turbines.

  • Two experimental projects have been set up in India to harness geothermal energy. They are; the Parvati valley near Manikarn in Himachal Pradesh and the Puga Valley in Ladakh.


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