Chapter 5 : The stone Age
1. The Palaeolithic period : Hunters and Food Gatherers : Page 33 +34 : • Man appeared in earlier Pleistocene along with True Ox, Elephant, Horse in Africa (3 Million Years old) - But only he appeared around Middle Pleistocene in India (only around 5 Lakh B.C.) . • Early Man in India (except in alluvial plains of Indus, ganga and Yamuna) used chipped stone tools + pebbles for hunting, cutting and other purpose. • No knowledge on cultivation + horse-building only knew hunting + food-gathering until 9000 B.C. • In Pleistocene, earth was predominantly covered with ice sheets.
Phases in the Palaeolithic age : Page 34 : • 3 Phases of Palaeolithic phases in India • Classification is based on : 1) Based on the stone tools used 2) Climate Change
EARLY /LOWER PALAEOLITIHIC AGE : • 5L – 50K B.C. • Ice age • use of Hand-axes , cleavers and choppers. • Axes found similar to west Asia, Europe and Africa. • Stone tools used for chopping, digging, and skinning • Sites : Sohan (Pakistan) ; Kashmir ; Thar desert ; Belan valley (UP) ; Didwana (Rajasthan) ; Bhimbetka (M.P.) • Rockshelters = seasonal camps for men
MIDDLE PALAEOLITIHIC AGE : 50k -40 k BC : PAGE 35 :
• Tools (blades, points, borers, scrapers) made of flakes. • Sites :Narmada ; Tungabhadra river.
UPPER PALAEOLITIHIC AGE : 40K - 1.5K BC : • Climate : Comparatively warm. • New flint industries + Modern type human (homo sapiens) • Use of blades, burins. Scrapers .
ALLUVIAL PLAINS OF INDUS AND GANGA. Remaining chapter 5 + chapter 6 : Part of premium edition
Chapter 7 : The Harrapan Culture : Bronze age Civilisation
1. Geographical Extent : (Page 53 + 54 ) • HC is older + developed than Chalcolithic culture. • Arose in North-Western part of India • Site named as Harappa as it was found in Harappa(West Punjab,Pak) in 1921 • What are other mains sites of HC. • Extent of HC ? Largest Culture zone in 2nd & 3rd century BC ; formed triangle in area. • Late HC sites ? Punjab + Mohenjo-Daro(M) + Chanhu-daro + Lothal+ Kalibangan + Banawali. Other sites?
• Distinguished Townplanning ; H & M – had its own acropolis / citadel • Grid System • Roads cut at right angles • What did monuments symbolise? • Mohenjendaro : Great Bath in – for religious bath ; Granary – Largest Building ; Harappa – 6 granaries (and presence of wheat & barley ) + Two-room barracks for labourers ; In Kalibangan too – there is granary.
PAGE 56 - 58 • Granaries , use of burnt bricks, Drainage system etc.. indication that HC paid much attention to Health and Cleanliness.
3. Agriculture : PAGE 58 + 59 • Alexander : Sindh was fertile • Indus region had more natural vegetation more rainfall • No hoe / ploughshare but furrows used for harvest of wheat & barley. (Wooden ploughshare has been used) • Garbarbands/nalas? • Produced : Wheat, Rai, Peas, Barley, sesamum, mustard, rice,cotton (why they were called sindhan?)
4. Domestication of Animals : PAGE 59 + 60 : • Oxen, buffaloes, goats, pigs,sheep . humped bulls, cats, dogs,camel + ass =as beast of burden, elephants, rhinocerous but not- horse centric.
5. Technology and Crafts ; PAGE 60 : • Use of bronze with mixing tin + copper ; From where tin and copper were obtained? • Place of Bronzesmith + Artisans in HC?They were considered to be Very important. • Use of woven cotton ; boat-making ; seal-making ;terracotta manufacture ; bead-making ; what about pottery?
6. Trade : PAGE 60 +61: • Numerous seals + weights & measures found. • Did they have enough resources to produce a lot ? Use of metal money or barter? • How did they transport goods ? Modern ekka or Spoked wheel? • Trade partners : Afghan, Iran, Tigris, Euphrates, Mesopotamia; lapis lazuli. • How did Mesopotamia calls Indus region? Meluha.
7. Political Organisation : PAGE 61. • No idea about political organ. • No temples/ religious structures (except what? ). • Fire cult practices in Lothal, Gujarat • No weapons : Commerce > Conquests.
8. Religious Practices : PAGE 60 +61: • Terracota figurines of women found. • Plant growing out of embryo of woman (probably goddess of earth) ; earth as fertility and worshiped it (but she was not given prominence) • Do not know HC is matriarchal or not. Same goes for inheritance. • Only from 6th century – goddesses (find out whom) given prominence ; later each village had one goddess.
9. The Male deity in the Indus Valley : PAGE 61 + 62 • God of Pushupati Mahadeva (describe him!) • Phallus + female sex organs worship • Rig veda : Non-aryans worshipped phallus.
10. Tree and Animal Worship : PAGE 63 • Pipal tree = worshipped. • Animal : One horned animal unicorn ;animals surrounding pushupati. • Did they believe in Ghosts? + Atharva veda.
11. The Harappan Script : • We do not know as ………… For more notes - subscribe for premium package.